Annual Reports


On January 7, 2021, when Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo began his second term as president of Ghana, the country’s political environment was highly polarized. The National Democratic Congress (NDC), Ghana’s opposition party, was contesting the validity of the presidential and parliamentary election results as declared by the Electoral Commission of Ghana in December 2020. The NDC presidential candidate filed a case asking the Supreme Court to annul Akufo-Addo’s victory. Unlike in 2012, when a similar petition dragged on for nearly eight months, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously on March 4 that Akufo-Addo was rightfully elected. Meanwhile, a drawn-out and chaotic election of the speaker of the parliament took place in the hung parliament resulting from the parliamentary election. The polarized political environment continued throughout the year and was evident in the absence of consensus building in most of the parliament’s deliberations.

Threats to Ghana’s security increased in 2021. Internally, conflicts arose from lingering or unresolved issues involving chieftaincy and access to control of land and natural resources. Externally, violent extremism spilled over from the Sahel region. The government launched a national security strategy in 2021 to respond holistically to threats and risks, promote government-community led partnerships, and strengthen community resilience.

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